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SCharles Pomeroy Stonebattle of balls bluff

2018-04-29 06:03 Source:6KGM.COM Edit:admin

American people in the khedivial Egyptian Army

, Louisiana State University Press, 1964,ISBN0-8071-0822-7.

Confederate Col.Nathan G. Shanks Evanswas in charge of the forces opposing Stone, and when he learned of the crossings he split his 2,000-man command. Three of his regiments were ordered to deal with Stone by blocking the road from Edwards Ferry to Leesburg, while the remainder fought and defeated Bakers force at Balls Bluff. Since Baker sent no updates, Stone had no idea a battle was occurring there and finding his path blocked by Confederates Stone returned to Edwards Ferry. He then moved toward Harrisons Island, learned of the defeat at Balls Bluff, and quickly asked McClellan for help from McCall, whom he thought nearby but was actually more than twenty miles away.[16]

Heidler, David Stephen; Heidler, Jeanne T; Coles, David J (2002).

, Stanford University Press, 2001,ISBN0-8047-3641-3.

Generals in Blue: Lives of the Union Commanders

To hold one commander in prison untried is less harmful in times of great national distress than to withdraw several good officers from active battlefields to give him a trial.

This page was last edited on 19 April 2018, at 03:47.

In 1853 Stone married Maria Louisa Clary, daughter of Esther Philipson and Lt.Robert Emmett Clary, a West Point classmate ofJefferson Davis; Davis served as best man at Esthers wedding on March 31, 1829.[6][7]

, University of Missouri Press, 1997,ISBN0-8262-1098-8.

, pp. 12528; Winkler, pp. 4446; Garrison, pp. 11416.

Garrison, p. 122. Statement from Scott while in retirement at West Point, New York.

General Stone has sustained a most flagrant wronga wrong which will probably stand as the very worst blot on the National side in the history of the war.[31]

. W. W. Norton & Company. p.1867.ISBN978-0-393-04758-5OCLC49681605

The arrest and imprisonment of Stone is without parallel in the annals of American military and/or civil jurisprudence.... he was victim of a demonstration on the part of theJoint Committee on the Conduct of the Warto avenge the death of one of their colleagues and to make it known that this was war to the knife, and a war to end slavery as well as to preserve the Union.[36]

Stone was reportedly the first volunteer to enter theUnion Army, and during the war he served as ageneral officer, noted for his involvement at theBattle of Balls Bluffin October 1861. Held responsible for the Union defeat, Stone was arrested and imprisoned for almost six months, mostly for political reasons. He never received a trial, and after his release he would not hold a significant command during the war again. Stone later served again with distinction as a general in theEgyptian Army, and is also noted for his role in constructing the base of theStatue of Liberty.

, Cumberland House Publishing, 2001,ISBN1-58182-226-X.

In response to this report, Stone thought the Confederate forces were indeed leaving Leesburg and decided to investigate further. While he led part of his command directly across at Edwards Ferry at 5 p.m., Stone ordered Col.Charles Devensand 300 men of his 15th Massachusetts to immediately cross over to Balls Bluff that night. Stones instructions were to March silently under cover of night to the position of the camp [and] attack and destroy it at daybreak... and return rapidly to the island.[15]Devens carried out Stones orders and made the difficult crossing on three small 10-man boats, taking him four hours to accomplish. Stone also gave Devens discretion over what to do after the attack; either hold Leesburg or return to Harrisons Island. Stone ordered the rest of the 15th Massachusetts over and added the 20th Massachusetts Inntry, under Col. William R. Lee, to this effort as well, and ordered Colonel andto take overall command. Devens found no camp since an earlier patrol apparently confused corn shocks as tents in the evening shadows; he halted and asked Stone for instructions, who responded to push closer to Leesburg. Devens determined to hold there, waiting several hours for reinforcements, when skirmishing began at 7 a.m., before Baker had arrived.[15]

Stone bore the brunt of much public criticism; thewas established in the wake of Bakers congressional eulogies and anger over the defeat. This seven-man group called Stone as one of their first witnesses about the Balls Bluff afir, and all testimony given by him and 38 others was kept secret. Before the end of October 1861, Stones official report about Balls Bluff had been leaked to theNew York Tribunenews, and in it Stone praised Bakers bravery but made clear his shortcomings as a field commander. Bakers congressional allies, among them Governor Andrew and Senator Sumner, openly denounced this report and began to point accusing fingers at Stone, not at Baker. Stones loyalty to the Union and position on slavery were more in question than his military abilities and decisions. The committees questions accused him of improper and frequent communications with the Confederates, of not re-enforcing Baker, of using his men to protect slaveholder property in Maryland, and of returning runaway slaves to their ownersdespite the last two of these following Maryland as well as Federal law.[20]Another problem for Stone defending himself was an order from McClellan forbidding him to give testimony regarding his [McClellans] plans, his orders for the movement of troops, or his orders concerning the position of troops.[21]This made it impossible for Stone to explain his movements to the committee, but kept McClellan out of the investigation as well.[22]

On November 17, 1856, he resigned his commission in the U.S. Army, finding the pay inadequate for his mily.[3]He briefly became a banker in 1856 inSan Francisco, but the bank iled the following year due to the ...absconding of its treasurer.[3]Stone then went back to Mexico, where he worked in various government jobs. From 1857 to 1860 he surveyed the Mexican state ofSonora, and from 1858 to 1860 he surveyed the lower region of California. Also from 1858 to 1859 Stone served as actingconsulatGuaymas, Mexico, the municipal center of Sonora .[3]In 1860 he moved his mily back to the U.S., settling inWashington, D.C.[2]In 1861 he published his survey findings, entitledNotes on the State of Sonora.[1]

After the war with Mexico ended, Stone returned to the Watervliet Arsenal in 1848, again taking up his position as Assistant Ordnance Officer. He then was granted aleave of absencefrom the U.S. Army, and proceeded toEuropeto study military practices of the armies there for two years. In 1850 he resumed duty at the Watervliet Arsenal briefly, and then was given command of the Ft. Monroe Arsenal into 1851. Later that year Stone was appointed Chief of Ordnance for thePacific Department, a post he held until 1855, and also began construction of theBenicia ArsenalinCaliforniathat year. During this time he was promoted to the rank of first lieutenant, effective February 26, 1853.[5]

The Extraordinary Life of Charles Pomeroy Stone: Soldier, Surveyor, Pasha and Engineer

Garrison, p. 122. On the Stone matter, Lincoln is alleged to have told this to Stanton in 1862.

National Park ServiceStatue of Liberty information.

Under a cloud for suspected disloyalty and treason, Stone was arrested just after midnight on February 8, 1862, on orders of Maj. Gen. McClellan, who was acting under orders from, dated January 28. Awaiting Stone near his home in Washington were 18 soldiers led by Brig. Gen.George Sykes. When Stone approached, Sykes stated I have now the most disagreeable duty to perform that I ever hadit is to arrest you.[24]When Stone angrily asked why, Sykes said I dont know. Its by order of Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan, general-in-chief of the army... I may as well tell you that you are to be sent toFort Layette.[24]This shocked Stone, who stated Thats where they sendsecessionists! I have been as true a soldier to the Government as any in service.[24]

At the outbreak ofsecession, Stone found himself inWashingtonwriting his report on Sonora. After a dinner with his former commander Winfield Scott, Stone was requested to beInspector Generalof theat the rank ofcolonelas of January 1, 1861, and was thus reputed to be the first volunteer officer mustered into theUnion Armybefore the Civil War.[2]In this role, he secured the capital for the arrival of, and was personally responsible for security at the new presidents inaugural.[8]One of his most important acts in this role was to frustrate an attempt by southern militias and the secret society known as theKnights of the Golden Circleto carry out a coup against the nascent Lincoln administration. Stone received word that militia groups fromBaltimoreand surrounding areas intended to infiltrateWashington, D.C.and seize the city by force during Lincolns inauguration. First Stone forced one suspected militia commander to give an oath of loyalty to the United States or be stripped of all rank, upon which that commander resigned. A second commander was maneuvered into handing Stone a full roster of all the men in his militia, then denied access to weapons and thoroughly investigated. Stones prompt action disintegrated the plot against the inaugural.[9]

Find a Grave template with ID same as Wikidata

, pp. 14748; Winkler, pp. 5455; Garrison, p. 123.

Stone lost about 1,000 men who were either killed, wounded, captured, or drowned during Balls Bluff, while the Confederates lost less than 160. The Union total included Baker, the only sitting U.S. Senator killed in combat when four bullets ripped into him, and he was dead before he hit the ground.[17]Bakers death and the action at Balls Bluff would have serious consequences for Stone, and also affect the way the American Civil War would be prosecuted.[18]In his official report about the battle on October 24, McClellan did not hold Stone personally responsible for the defeat, saying The disaster was caused by errors committed by the immediate Commander not General Stone.[19]

, Westholme Publishing, 2015.ISBN1-5941-6232-8.

U.S. Army Biographical sketch of Charles Pomeroy Stonearchived from theoriginal

Eicher, p. 513; Aztec Club site biography of Stone

Contrary to U.S. Army regulations as well, no charges were ever filed against Stone nor did he stand trial. While he was in solitary confinement at Fort Layette, he could not exercise, and consequently Stones health began to degrade. His physicians protested heavily to Stanton, who ordered him transferred to the military prison atFort Hamilton. There Stone was allowed to exercise and his condition improved. He stayed at Fort Layette for fifty days, and would spend another - in Fort Hamilton.[27]Stone was finally released without explanation or apology on August 16, 1862. The reason for his release was new legislation written byCaliforniaSenatorJames A. McDougall. In a small addition to another bill, McDougall reiterated the Articles of War requirement that official charges be filed within eight days of arrest, but went on to include that any imprisoned officer must be given their trial within thirty days. McDougall also made it clear this legislation applied to those currently under arrest, which covered Stones case. It passed the U.S. Congress and was signed into law byPresident Lincolnon July 17, 1862. Stanton then waited the thirty days before releasing Stone.[28]

After his release, Stone returned home to Washington and awaited orders, and also continued to try to clear his name. Despite the arrest and confinement, Stones services were still in demand. In September 1862, as theMaryland Campaigndeveloped, McClellan asked the War Department to re-instate Stone, but Stanton declined. When Maj. GenJoseph Hookertook over command of the Army of the Potomac in early 1863, he asked for Stone as hischief of staff, but Stanton denied this request as well. On February 27, Stone was finally allowed to hear the testimony that caused him to be arrested, and with McClellan no longer his commander Stone could freely answer the accusations. He did this to the Committees satisction, who soon afterwards published its revised findings, clearing Stone.[30]With the cts now known, theNew York Timesnews editorialized:

. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 2013.ISBN978-0-8071-5004-7.

Stone stayed at West Point, serving as an assistant professor and teaching geography, history, and also ethics from August 28, 1845, to January 13, 1846. Afterwards he was posted to theWatervliet ArsenalinNew Yorkas Assistant Ordnance Officer, and then toFortress MonroeatOld Point ComfortVirginia, both in 1846. While there Stone worked in the cilities arsenal and was an assistant to Capt.Benjamin Huger, whom he would serve under in the war with Mexico.[3]

Stone served the Khedive well, implementing a general staff, expanding Egypts boundaries, and establishing schools for the education of Egypts soldiers and their children. He remained in the service of Khedive Ismail (and Ismails successor, sonTewfik) for 13 years. When theBritishbombardedAlexandria, and Arabi led the revolt of the Egyptian army, Stone stayed with Tewfik in Alexandria, even while his wife and daughters were trapped inCairo.[33]

Knights of the Golden Circle: Secret Empire, Southern Secession, Civil War

Pages using infobox military person with unknown parameters

In his efforts to carry out his orders and maintain discipline, Stone drew the attention and wrath of his home states governor,John A. Andrew, andCharles Sumner, the seniorU.S. Senatorfrom Massachusetts, both powerful and influentialRadical Republicanpoliticians. In late September Stone issued general orders that required his men not to incite and encourage insubordination among the coloured servants in the neighbourhood. When two runaway slaves came into their lines, one of his regiments, the20th Massachusetts Inntry, promptly caught them and returned them to their owner. This was done in compliance with Stones orders as well as both Federal and Maryland law. However, many of the 20th Massachusetts wereabolitionists, disagreed with Stones insistence on returning runaways back into slavery, and wrote both their milies and their representatives about the incident. Governor Andrew strongly reprimanded the colonel of the regiment, who gave the letter to Stone.[10]After reading it Stone wrote back, its contents summarized by military historianBruce Cattonas follows: this regiment was in United States service now and the governor had no business meddling with discipline, the young lieutenant and the colonel had properly done what they were told to do and were not subject to reprimand from any governor, and would the governor in future please keep his hand off?[8]

, Simon & Schuster, 2001,ISBN0-684-84944-5.

People of Massachusetts in the American Civil War

General McCall occupied Dranesville yesterday, and is still there. Will send out heavy reconnaissances today in all directions from that point. The general desires that you keep a good lookout upon Leesburg, to see if this movement has the effect to drive them away. Perhaps a slight demonstration on your part would have the effect to move them.[13]

Stones first wife Maria died in Washington, D.C., shortly after Stones release from Fort Hamilton.[31]While serving in New Orleans during 1863, Stone fell in love with Jeanne Stone[35]and they had two daughters and a son,John Stone Stone, who later became a pioneer in the field of wireless telegraphy. Stone was also an original founding member of theAztec Club of 1847, a social organization for officers who served in the MexicanAmerican War.[3]

After the American Civil War ended in 1865, Stone worked as an engineer and later superintendent forVirginias Dover Mining Company until 1869.[32]The following yearWilliam T. Sherman, by now the U.S. ArmysCommanding General, recommended Stone for service in theEgyptian Army.[33]From 1870 to -3 he served aschief of stafnd generalaide-de-campfor theofEgypt. While there he was given the rank oflieutenant generaland the title ofFerik Pasha.[34]Stones career in the Egyptian Army has been described thus:

Charles Pomeroy Stone and his daughter Esther, who was known as Hettie, photographed together in the spring of 1863; StonesUSMA class ringcan be seen on the little finger of his right hand.

This article is about the 19th century American general and explorer. For the 20th century American general, seeCharles P. Stone.

Without assignment until May, Stone was ordered to theDepartment of the Gulf, serving as a member of the surrender commission atPort Hudsonand in theRed River Campaignas Maj. Gen.Nathaniel P. Bankschief of staff. However, on April 4, 1864, Stanton ordered Stone mustered out of his volunteer commission as a brigadier general and he reverted to his rank of colonel within theregular army. He served briefly as a brigade commander in theArmy of the Potomacduring theSiege of Petersburg, but finally resigned from the Army on September 13, 1864, before the end of the war.[2]

, Doubleday and Company, 1951,ISBN1-4067-3885-9.

Stone later returned to the United States, where he worked as an engineer for theFlorida Ship Canal Companyin -3.[1]In -4, he accepted the position ofChief Engineerof the Statue of Liberty project atBedloes Island, New York Harbor, and planned and supervised the construction of the Statue of Libertyspedestal, concretefoundationand the reassembly of the Statue of Liberty after its arrival from France. Stone served as the grand marshal of the dedication parade in Manhattan on October 28, -6. He fell ill some months afterwards and died inNew York City. General Stone is buried inWest Point National Cemetery.[34]

Under guard, Stone was ordered to be sent to the military prison at Fort Layette by train. When he reached the rail depot atPhiladelphia, confusion as to payment for his ticket caused Stone to buy his own ticket. Upon reaching the cility he was put immediately intosolitary confinement, but he managed to hire an attorney and waited for official charges to be filed. According to theArticles of Warthis had to be done within eight days of an arrest, but was never done in Stones case. He sent several inquiries to McClellan, to the armysadjutant generals office, and to Stanton himself, who stated ...the charges were being reviewed prior to being publicized..., but received no satisctory explanation.[25]

More heated letters passed between Andrew and Stone, and then Andrew involved Sumner, who quickly and strongly denounced Stone to the U.S. Senate. Stones written response to thisdescribed as in terms so bitter that it almost seemed as if he were challenging the senator to duel[11]further inflamed the situation. Stones dealings with these two men would have tragic consequences in his near future.[11]

On October 20, 1861, Stone was ordered byto conduct areconnaissanceacross the Potomac River to report onConfederateactivities inLeesburg, Virginia. McClellan also hoped this action, combined with a movement by Brig. Gen.George A. McCalls division of 13,000 men towardDranesvillethe day before, would encourage a Confederate withdrawal from the area without an engagement occurring.[12]This message from McClellans staff related the situation and outlined Stones orders:

American military personnel of the MexicanAmerican War

Fighting withs army in the MexicanAmerican War,[4]Stone was promoted to second lieutenant on March 3, 1847. He first saw action during theSiege of Veracruzfrom March 929, then the skirmishing near Amazoque on May 14, and theBattle of Contrerason August 1920. Stone then fought notably during theBattle of Molino del Reyon September 8, and was appointed a brevetfirst lieutenantfrom that date for gallant and meritorious conduct in this fight.[3]

, Cumberland House Publishing, 2008,ISBN1-58182-631-1.

Irwin, Richard B., Balls Bluff and the Arrest of General Stone,

List of Massachusetts generals in the American Civil War

It may, or may not be that President Lincoln ordered the arrest of Stone. In a communication of September 30, 1862, General in Chief H. W. Halleck wrote about Stones arrest: I understood that it was made by the orders of the President.[29]

p. 344, The War of the Rebellion: a Compilation of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies, Series 1, Volume 5, -1, September 30, 1862, H W. Halleck to Charles P. Stone.

Charles Pomeroy Stone(September 30, 1824 January 24, -7) was a careercivil engineer, andsurveyor. He fought with distinction in theMexicanAmerican War, earning twobrevetpromotions for his performance in the conflict. After resigning and surveying for theMexican Government, he returned to the U.S. Army to fight in theAmerican Civil War.

Zion in the Valley: The Jewish Community of St. Louis

Text is available under the; additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to theTerms of UseandPrivacy Policy. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of theWikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization.

, W.W. Norton & Co., 2002,ISBN0-393-04758-X.

The Longest Night: A Military History of the Civil War

Heidler, David S., Heidler, Jeanne T., and Coles, David J.,

From this order Stone reasonably believed he had support nearby from McCall if needed; what he did not know was that McClellan had ordered McCall back to his previous position atLangleyon October 21, putting any help for Stone further away.[13]Stones division numbered about 10,000 men and was posted aroundPoolesvilleMaryland, about eight miles from Leesburg, with portions of his command at points along the Potomac shore. He moved hisartilleryto Edwards Ferry along the Potomac, from which he could shell the woods on the opposite side of the river, held by Confederate forces. Stone then sent three small boats with about 100 men from the1st Minnesota Inntryacross, who returned shortly without incident. Near sunset he sent out a small patrol of 20 soldiers of the15th Massachusetts Inntryto scout toward Leesburg and see whether the Union movements had the desired effect or not. Crossing at Harrisons Island on the river, these men scaled Balls Bluff and encountered what they believed was a Confederate camp of at least thirty men less than a mile inland. The patrol returned to Harrisons Island around 10 p.m. and reported by messenger to Stone at Edwards Ferry.[14]

, Doubleday and Company, 1952,ISBN0-385-04167-5.

Stone was appointed Colonel of the14th U.S. Inntry Regimenton May 14, and then abrigadier generalin the Union Army that August, to rank from May 17. He commanded abrigadein Maj. Gen.Robert PattersonArmy of the Shenandoahduring theFirst Bull Runcampaign in June and July. Stone then was given command of adivision, called the Corps of Observation, guarding the fords along the upperPotomac Riverthat ll.[2]

On September 13, 1847, Stone participated in theBattle of Chapultepec, and was appointed a brevetcaptainfor his conduct on that day.[2]He then fought in theBattle for Mexico Cityuntil September 15, and was part of a successful climbing party of the volcano atPopocatepetl, raising anAmerican Flagat its summit.[3]He was an original member of theAztec Club of 1847, a military society formed by U.S. Army officers who had served in Mexico.

Military historian Ezra J. Warner held Stones treatment following Balls Bluff in disdain, saying in 1964:

Stone was born inGreenfield, Massachusetts, a son of Alpheus Fletcher Stone, the towns doctor, and his wife Fanny Cushing.[1]He was one of ten children in a Protestant mily of Puritan descent. In 1841 he entered theUnited States Military AcademyatWest Pointand graduated four years later, standing seventh out of 41 cadets. His time at the academy was shared with a number of other recruits who would go on to have important roles in the Civil War and the lead-up to it, including such ardent secessionists asWilliam Logan Crittenden. He was appointed aof ordnance on July 1, 1845.[2]He and his younger sister, Fanny Cushing Parker (1827-8), were Roman Catholic converts.

. Archived fromthe originalon November 30, 2007

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